A complete guide on Maven Lifecycle
By Hamid Akhtar, Community Contributor - August 28, 2023
Maven is like a project manager for software development. Imagine you’re leading a team to build a house. Maven would be the one who ensures everything runs smoothly.
It organizes the project’s structure, tracks dependencies (like materials and tools), and handles the build process.
Just as a project manager coordinates tasks and resources, Maven coordinates the compilation, testing, and packaging of your code. It saves time by automatically resolving dependencies from repositories, just like ordering supplies from trusted vendors.
With Maven, developers can focus on coding, knowing that the project’s management is taken care of, like a reliable project manager for your software projects.
What is Maven Lifecycle
This is a query frequently posed in the field of software development. Maven is fundamentally structured around the concept of a build lifecycle. Here is the list that will explain everything about the maven life cycle:
- Maven is built around the concept of a build lifecycle, which defines the order of execution for goals.
- The default Maven lifecycle consists of 8 major phases: Validate, Compile, Test, Package, Integration Test, Verify, Install, and Deploy.
- Each phase represents a specific step in the build process and has its own set of goals to be executed.
- For example, the Compile phase compiles the source code, the Test phase runs unit tests, and the Package phase creates a distributable artifact.
- Maven follows a sequential order, where executing a specific phase also triggers the preceding phases.
- Goals in Maven represent granular tasks and are packaged in plugins.
- Plugins contain one or more goals and contribute to the creation and management of the project.
- The Maven build lifecycle includes three built-in lifecycles: default, clean, and site.
- The default lifecycle handles the regular build process, the clean life cycle removes generated artifacts, and the site life cycle generates project documentation and reports.
Overall, the Maven lifecycle provides a structured and standardized approach to building and managing projects, ensuring consistent and reliable results.
Must Read: What is the Role of Maven in DevOps
Phases of Maven Lifecycle
Maven Clean Lifecycle:
1. The Maven clean lifecycle consists of the following phases:
2. By using the Clean phase (mvn clean), you ensure a clean and consistent build environment. It removes previously generated artifacts, reducing the risk of conflicts or outdated files.
3. Ensures that subsequent builds start from a clean state, minimizing potential build errors. Provides a fresh workspace for developers, leading to improved productivity and reliability.
Maven Build Lifecycle:
1. The Maven build lifecycle consists of the following phases:
2. The Build phase (mvn compile, mvn test, mvn package, etc.) automates the compilation, testing, and packaging processes.
3. It ensures consistent and reliable builds across different test environments.
4. Maven’s dependency management handles the resolution and integration of external libraries, simplifying the development process.
5. Build reports and test results provide valuable insights into the project’s health and code quality.
Maven Site Lifecycle:
1. The Maven site lifecycle consists of the following phases:
2. The site phase (mvn site) generates comprehensive project documentation, reports, and metrics. It facilitates better understanding and collaboration among team members.
Read More: Maven Dependency Management with Selenium
Understanding Maven Goals and Plugins
In Maven, goals and plugins play a crucial role in executing specific tasks and extending the functionality of the build process.
- Goals are specific tasks that Maven can perform during the build lifecycle.
- Each phase of the lifecycle is associated with one or more goals.
- Maven provides default goals for each phase, but you can also define custom goals.
- Goals can be executed from the command line using the mvn command followed by the goal name.
- Examples of common Maven goals include compile, test, package, and install.
- Plugins are the building blocks of Maven’s functionality.
- They provide implementations for various goals and can be used to extend the build process.
- Maven has a vast ecosystem of plugins that cover a wide range of tasks and integrations.
- Plugins can be configured in the project’s POM file, specifying the desired version and any custom configurations.
- Maven resolves and downloads plugins from remote repositories when needed.
- Examples of popular Maven plugins include the Maven Compiler Plugin, Surefire Plugin for testing, and the Maven Assembly Plugin for creating custom distributions.
Read More: What is Maven in Java? (Framework and Uses)
Benefits of Goals and Plugins:
- Goals allow you to perform specific tasks within the build lifecycle, such as compiling code, running tests, packaging the project, or generating reports.
- Plugins provide additional functionality by implementing these goals and extending Maven’s capabilities.
- They help automate complex tasks, manage dependencies, generate documentation, and integrate with external tools.
- Goals and plugins ensure consistency across projects and facilitate collaboration by providing a standardized approach to building and managing projects.
In summary, Maven goals represent specific tasks within the build lifecycle, and plugins provide the implementations for those tasks.
Together, they allow you to automate various aspects of the build process, extend functionality, and achieve efficient and reliable project builds.
Setting up a Maven project
Step 1: Install Java JDK
Install Java (JDK 1.7 or higher) on your machine. Java serves as the backbone for Maven, providing the necessary environment to bring your projects to life.
Step 2: Download Maven
Head over to the official Apache Maven website. Download the Maven binary zip file, unbox it, and let Maven dazzle you with its capabilities.
Step 3: Configure Maven’s Path
Set up the MAVEN_HOME environment variable, pointing it to Maven’s bin folder. This helps set up seamless communication between your system and Maven.
Step 4: Check if Maven is Installed properly
Know whether your Maven is installed correctly by checking its version. Open the command prompt, type the below command to know the version of Maven installed.
Step 5: Create a new Maven Project
Create a new project in Maven with the below command.
Maven will create a structure for your project.
Step 6: Add Maven Dependencies
To enrich your project’s capabilities, add dependencies to your project’s pom.xml file.
Step 7: Create a Maven Project
Maven will compile, test, and package your project using the below command.
This command will build the Maven project and installs the project files ( JAR , WAR , pom. xml , etc.) to the local repository.
Launch your project after you complete the build.
Also Read: Maven vs Jenkins : Key Differences
Maven sets the stage for a smooth, organized, and efficient project management experience. Embrace its simplicity, and let Maven revolutionize your development journey.
Maven exhibits different capabilities, from managing JARs and dependencies to automating Selenium Java project lifecycles. Understand the intricacies of transitive dependencies and how Maven simplifies their management.
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Maven is widely used by prominent companies worldwide to streamline their software development processes. Companies like Apache Software Foundation, Google, Netflix, Twitter, LinkedIn, and PayPal rely on Maven for efficient build automation and dependency management.
Maven’s widespread adoption by these companies is a testament to its effectiveness in ensuring reliable and scalable software development. By leveraging Maven’s capabilities, these companies can manage dependencies, automate builds, and deliver high-quality software more efficiently.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
- What are Maven builds?
Maven builds are the processes in which Maven compiles source code, runs tests, and packages the application.
- What is the difference between Maven build and install?
In Maven, the build phase compiles and packages the application, while the install phase installs the built artifact into the local repository for use as a dependency in other projects.