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Static Testing vs Dynamic Testing

By Manish Saini, Community Contributor -

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A product can represent itself if it’s engineered to support its customers’ needs with the very best quality. Quality, therefore, isn’t the responsibility of one but many!

‘Testing’, therefore, was and can remain one of the main critical standalone branches within the software development process that guarantees quality.

Testing is of many types and is broadly captivated with the product or application type being built. However, one aspect remains identical – testing often and testing better. Static Testing and Dynamic testing help us a lot to ensure that level of  quality a team should thrive for. In this article, we will learn more about Static Testing and Dynamic Testing. 

What is Static Testing?

Static Testing is software testing where the actual program or application isn’t used. This testing method requires programmers to read their code to search out any errors manually. Static testing is a stage of White Box Testing called dry run testing. Testing a program does not require a computer, for example reviewing, walk-through, inspection, etc.

  • This testing checks the code, requirement, and design documents and puts review comments on the word document.
  • It enhances the software’s standard by searching for errors, code flaws, and potentially malicious code within the application. 
  • It starts earlier in the SDLC and is called Verification Testing.
  • Static testing is done early in the development process before the code is actually executed. This makes it different from dynamic testing, done after the code is executed. 
  • Static testing can be done using documents like requirement specifications, design documents, source code, test plans, test scripts, test cases, or web page content

It’s never-ending activity and not done just by testers.

What is Dynamic Testing?

Dynamic testing is a kind of software testing that involves the execution of action on a system while the system code is compiled and it’s in an exceedingly run-time environment. it is a technique of assessing the feasibility of a software program by giving input and examining the output. 

The foremost aim here is to ensure that software works appropriately during and after the software installation, ensuring a stability with no significant flaws. 

  • Dynamic testing that the Validation a part of the Verification and Validation process.
  • It is slightly complex than typical software testing as it requires the testers to possess deep knowledge about the system and its inner workings and understand how it reacts when given inputs are given.
  • It fetches better and more realistic results than static testing.
  •  It also helps find bugs that can not be found with normal software testing, and it’ll be used for regression tests.

Repeated regression testing helps find application failures, well before release deadlines. But as your application grows, so does your regression test suite. With BrowserStack,  access an infrastructure of 3000+ real mobile devices and desktop browsers on the cloud. 

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Difference Between Static and Dynamic Testing

Static TestingDynamic Testing
It is performed in the early stage of software developmentIt is performed at the later stage of the software development.
Testing is done without executing the programTesting is done by executing the program
Also known as Verification testingAlso known as validation testing
It consists of reviews, walkthroughs, inspection, etc.,It consists of functional, non-functional testing, and data/control flow analysis.
Static testing gives an assessment of code and documentationDynamic testing gives bugs/bottlenecks in the software system.
Performs a dry run on the code as part of the static analysis of the code.Code is fully analyzed for different paths by executing it.
It generally takes a shorter time.It usually takes a longer time as it involves running several test cases.
Static testing covers the structural and statement coverage testing.Dynamic testing covers the executable file of the code.
It includes requirement documents, design documents, program specifications, etc.,It includes unit testing, integration testing, system testing, performance testing, security testing, etc.,

Static Testing Techniques

Here are the different Static Testing Techniques that are used during the verification process:

  • Informal Reviews 

In the informal review, all documents are presented to every team member by SRS document creator. Everyone presents their views on the defects, which leads to detecting defects in the early stages.

  • Walkthroughs 

To avoid unnoticed defects or bugs, a walkthrough review is performed by experts or skilled people.

  • Technical/Peer Reviews

All the software product’s technical specifications are reviewed by a team of your peers, which checks whether it is suitable for the project. Everyone tries to find out if there are any discrepancies in the specifications and standards. This is mainly based on the technical documentation related to the product, such as Test Plan, Test Strategy, and requirement specification documents.

  • Inspection

This review is a formal type of review that follows a strict process to find the defects. Reviewers have a checklist to review the software or product. The main purpose is to find out defects and the meeting is led by a moderator who is trained in this. Every defect is recorded and they informed the participants to rectify those errors.

This is also termed as a part of white box testing. This is a systematic review of the software source code without executing the code. It checks the syntax of the code, coding standards, code optimization, etc. It  can be done at any time during the development process.

Dynamic Testing Techniques

The dynamic testing of any component or system is approached in 2 different ways.

  • White Box Testing
  • Black Box Testing

White Box Testing

White Box Testing, also known as clear box testing or glass box testing, is a form of black box testing, in which the inputs and expected outputs are both known in advance. In White Box Testing, test cases are derived from the source codes.

The developers perform white-box testing; they are already aware of the underlying system, messaged the internal workings, and know the code line by line.

Once the white box testing is done, the software is sent to do the following process, like black box testing.

Black Box Testing

This is done by a team of testers unaware of a system’s underlying code. The goal is to check whether the system is working as it should against any input. They check whether the system produces the expected output according to the requirements.   This is performed by the testers or the testing team who are unaware of the built and codes of the system. They should only be aware of software specifications and requirements.

The Black Box testing is further divided into-

  • Functional Testing
  • Non-functional Testing

Functional Testing

The purpose of this type of testing is to evaluate how well the software functions in the hands of somebody who is not the programmer.

  • Functional testing focuses on verifying that the software developed is doing what it was supposed to do. 
  • The focus is on the specifications of the system. 
  • The components are tested individually as well as combined. 
  • It verifies the expected outputs from inputs. This includes- Unit Testing, Integration Testing, System Testing, and User Acceptance Testing.

Non-Functional Testing

Non-functional Testing is a type of system testing that focuses on the non-functional aspects (performance, load, and response time) of a software application. 

  • These tests are used to ensure that the system meets its functional requirement and has a good user experience.
  • Non-functional testing also includes security testing, cross-browser compatibility testing, scalability testing etc.

Conclusion

In conclusion, Static testing is an essential part of the software development process and not just limited to testers. It takes the form of business requirement review, functional requirement review, design reviews, code walkthroughs, and test documentation review. It is a continuous activity and not done just by testers.

Dynamic testing is a more hands-on activity than static testing. It involves working with a product in real time and not just reviewing documentation or artifacts. Validation, the dynamic testing phase, is also more formal than static testing and involves test cases and defects reporting.

Static Testing vs Dynamic Testing

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