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Home Guide How to Create Test Cases for Automated tests?

How to Create Test Cases for Automated tests?

By Neha Vaidya, Community Contributor -

Test cases define the sequence of actions required to verify the system functionality. A typical test case consists of test steps, preconditions, expected results, and actual results. QA teams usually create test cases from test scenarios. These test scenarios provide a high-level overview of what QA should test regarding user workflows and end-to-end functionality to confirm that the system satisfies customer requirements. In this article, let’s understand how to create test cases for automated testing.

Introduction to Test Automation

Test automation involves executing the tests automatically, managing test data, and utilizing results to improve software quality. It’s a quality assurance measure, but its role consists of the commitment of the entire software production team. From business analysts to developers and DevOps engineers, getting the most out of test automation takes the inclusion of everyone.

It reduces the pressure on manual testers and allows them to focus on higher-value tasks – exploratory tests, reviewing test results, etc. Automation testing is essential to achieve maximum test coverage and effectiveness, shorten testing cycle duration, and greater result accuracy.

Before developing the automation test cases, it is essential to select the ideal test conditions that should be automated based on the following factors:

  • Tests that need to be executed across multiple test data sets
  • Tests that give maximum test coverage for complex and end-to-end functionalities
  • Tests that need to be executed across several hardware or software platforms and on multiple environments
  • Tests that consume a lot of time and effort to execute manually

Which tests should be automated?

Here are the different types of tests that should be automated for a faster and more efficient testing cycle:

Role of Test Cases in Automated Testing

Test cases play a crucial role in automated testing. They are the building blocks for designing, executing, and validating computerized tests. Here are some key functions that test cases fulfill in the context of automated testing:

  • Test Coverage: Test cases define the specific scenarios, inputs, and expected outputs that must be tested.
  • Test Script Creation: Serve as a blueprint for creating automated test scripts. Each test case is typically mapped to one or more test scripts.
  • Test Execution: Automated tests are executed based on the instructions provided by test cases. Test cases define the sequence of steps performed during test execution.
  • Test Maintenance: When the software changes due to bug fixes, new features, or updates, the existing test cases must be updated accordingly. Test cases clearly show what needs to be modified or added.
  • Test Result Validation: After test execution, automated tests compare the actual and expected results defined in the test cases. This comparison helps identify discrepancies, errors, or bugs in the software under test, allowing the test team to investigate and address any issues.
  • Regression Testing: Automated tests can quickly identify any regression issues introduced by new code changes or updates by executing the same test cases repeatedly.
  • Test Reporting and Analysis: Test cases provide a structured framework for test reporting and analyzing test results. By associating test cases with specific test outcomes, defects, or issues, it becomes easier to track the overall progress.

How to write Test Cases in Automation Testing?

Writing the automated test case is a complex task that requires a different method than its manual counterpart. Automation test cases should further break down workflows compared to manual test cases. Templates for automation test cases vary depending on the automation tools; still, they should all have the following components:

  • Specifications: The Test Case includes the details on the right application state for executing the test, including browser launch and logins.
  • Sync and wait statements: This allows the necessary time for the application to get to the required state before testing the actual functionality.
  • Test steps: Writing Test Steps includes data entry requirements, detailed steps to reach the next required state, and steps to return the application to its original state before test runs.
  • Comments to explain the approach.
  • Debugging statements to invoke any available debugging functionality that can be used for code correction to avoid the flakiness of the tests.
  • Output statements that describe where and how to record the test results.

Manual and automated test cases verify functionality but go differently for test case development.

Creating a Test Case for Automated Test

To understand how to create a test case for test automation, build a test case on a scenario where the user has to navigate the google.com website in a Chrome Browser.

  • Test Scenario: To authenticate a successful user login on Browserstack.com
  • Test Steps:
    • Launch Chrome Browser
    • The user navigates to the google.com URL.
  • Browser: Chrome v 86.
  • Test Data: URL of the Google.
  • Expected/Intended Results: Once the Chrome Browser is launched, the web page redirects to the google.com webpage.
  • Actual Results: As Expected
  • Test Status: Pass/Fail: Pass

Converting a Test Case to a Test Script for Automated Tests

To create the test script for the above test case example, instantiate a Chrome browser instance and navigate to the google.com website using TestNG annotations. The actual test case is written under @Test annotation.

For using TestNG annotations, you need to either import external libraries or add maven dependency in your pom.xml file as seen below:

<dependency>
<groupId>org.testng</groupId>
<artifactId>testng</artifactId>
<version>7.5</version>
<scope>test</scope>
</dependency>

You need to create the test file under src/test/java, as shown below:

Create Test Cases for Automated Tests

package test;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit; 
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver; 
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver; 
import org.testng.annotations.AfterTest; 
import org.testng.annotations.BeforeTest; 
import org.testng.annotations.Test; 
public class MavenTest1{ 
public String baseUrl = "https://www.google.com/"; 
String driverPath = "C:\\Softwares\\chromedriver_win32 (1)\\chromedriver.exe"; 
public WebDriver driver ; 
@Test 
public void test() { 
// set the system property for Chrome driver 
System.setProperty("webdriver.chrome.driver", driverPath); 
// Create driver object for CHROME browser 
driver = new ChromeDriver(); 
driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(20, TimeUnit.SECONDS); 
driver.manage().window().maximize(); 
driver.get(baseUrl); 
// get the current URL of the page 
String URL= driver.getCurrentUrl(); 
System.out.print(URL); 
//get the title of the page 
String title = driver.getTitle(); 
System.out.println(title); 
} 
@BeforeTest 
public void beforeTest() { 
System.out.println("before test"); 
} 
@AfterTest 
public void afterTest() { 
driver.quit(); 
System.out.println("after test"); 
} 
}

On executing the test case as TestNG test, it will launch the browser, navigate to google.com and give the following output on your IDE Console as seen below:

Create Test Cases for Automated Tests

 

  • To optimize the Test Automation suite, it is essential to leverage cloud-based platforms like BrowserStack that offer a Cloud Selenium Grid of 3000+ real browsers and devices.
  • Testing on a cloud grid lets the QAs test under real user conditions and thus improves the accuracy of the testing, making debugging easier.
  • They can also utilize multiple features for more comprehensive testing scenarios – Geolocation Testing, Network Simulation, Testing on dev environments.
  • Using Test Management, manage manual and automated test cases in a central repository. Speed up testing by organizing test cases with folders and tags.
  • Create and track manual & automated test runs. Upload test results either from Test Observability or JUnit-XML/BDD-JSON reports.

How to Create Test Cases for Automated tests?

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